An intensive property is a behaviour of matter that remains unchanged even when there is a change in the quantity of matter. An intensive property is defined as a bulk property; therefore, it does not depend on the mass or the size of a sample.
When it comes to the physical material properties, they can be said to be either. This classification is based on whether the property changes with size. Based on a definition from IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), an intensive quantity is defined as a system whose magnitude does not depend on the size of its system.
The word “intensive quantity” was first used in 1898 in the field of Physics by Georg Helm, a German writer, as well as American chemist cum physicist Richard C. Tolman.
Some examples of intensive properties
When it comes to intensive properties, several quantities embody this. They are:
An intensive property will not rely on the size of the system or the quantity of material that the system has. It isn’t a homogeneously distributed entity; it can vary about as a body of radiation and matter.
A good example of an intensive property is the ratios obtained from extensive quantities. Think about a homogeneous system that is separated in two. This means that all the properties like mass density or specific volume will have to be on either half.
A system that is said to be in thermal equilibrium has an equal temperature at every part of the system. This temperature is an intensive property. If it seems that the system is separated by a wall which is permeable to matter or heat, then the temperature of each subsystem is similar.
In addition, a substance’s boiling point can be defined as an intensive property. Water, for instance, has a boiling point of 100 degrees Celsius, which comes at one atmosphere of pressure, irrespective of the amount of water that is left over as liquid.
What is the difference between intensive properties and extensive properties?
An extensive property will usually depend on the quantity of the matter that is present in the sample. When it comes to extensive properties, good examples are volume and mass. Whereas an intensive property is a part of matter that only depends on the nature of matter that a sample contains. This type of property does not depend on any amount.
What property is work?
Work is a quantity that is defined as the product of distance (this is extensive) and Force (intensive). Energy comes in various forms that are treated in the field of thermodynamics. Pressure, which is an intensive property multiplied by volume which is an extensive property is a type of energy.
Extensive properties usually change based on the quantity of the substance present therein like volume, weight, and mass. On the other hand, intensive properties are quantities that are not dependent on any substance. This includes physical states, electrical conductivity, boiling point, melting point, and colour.
The extensive property of the matter can help us identify the thermodynamic state that a system has. They can provide us with the needed coordinates which can be used to look for the thermodynamic state of matter.
Properties of Matter
An intensive property is an important part of the matter. The matter is defined using various properties. Simple properties like densities, melting points, molecular numbers, and masses can be used to define a system. Some of these properties are intrinsically connected to the substance that is being examined. These are distinct properties and they are called intensive properties.